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Volume 12, No 2 - 2011

Volume 12, No 2 - 2011

Table of Contents

Residual Risk and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Is There a Relationship? Management Update
Statins reduce adverse cardiovascular events in both primary and secondary prevention settings. Despite their use, however, a residual burden of cardiovascular events continues to remain; in part this residual risk is related to low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Therefore, HDL-based interventions that either raise HDL cholesterol levels or improve HDL function have become the next target for atherosclerosis management. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e55-e59 doi: 10.3909/ricm0565] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Emerging Practice Patterns and Outcomes of Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvuloplasty in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis Treatment Update
A total of 33 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty (PABV) for bridging or palliative therapy were reviewed; the emerging treatment patterns for this procedure are described. Longitudinal data suggest that PABV provides a significant reduction in peak and mean aortic valve gradients with > 12-month survival for more than half of observed patients. This supports the current application of PABV, which is currently limited to palliative care and bridging therapy to more definitive forms of future treatment, including transcatheter aortic valve implantation. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e60-e67 doi: 10.3909/ricm0594] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Immunology Insights Into Cardiac Allograft Rejection Treatment Update
Despite long-term complications from chronic immunosuppressive therapy, the phenomenon of chronic rejection is still a limitation in cardiac allograft recipients. In this review, starting from basic immunologic concepts, we analyze the mechanisms involved in rejection following heart transplantation, with particular emphasis on chronic rejection manifested as cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Etiopathogenesis of CAV and diagnostic imaging studies are also discussed. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e68-e76 doi: 10.3909/ricm0562] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Treatment Options for Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease Treatment Update
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the gold standard for the treatment of left main disease, whereas percutaneous coronary intervention is a viable option for patients who are candidates for revascularization but ineligible for CABG. CABG is limited by extended hospital stay followed by rehabilitation and mediocre long-term patency of saphenous vein grafts. Drug-eluting stents decrease the restenosis rates compared with bare metal stents and provide comparable clinical outcomes with those of CABG. Patients with isolated left main disease limited to the ostium or midbody are most likely to have good clinical outcomes with low restenosis and stent thrombosis rates. The results of the ongoing EXCEL trial, which compares left main percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents and CABG, will provide insight regarding the ideal revascularization strategy for these patients. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e77-e83 doi: 10.3909/ricm0563] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Coronary Artery Disease in Women: A Review and Update Disease State Review
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. In fact, coronary events are responsible for one of every six deaths per year in the United States. Since 1984, more women than men have died of heart disease. Research has shown that there are significant differences in pathophysiology, screening, and treatment between men and women with coronary disease. Future research is needed to explain the sex-specific issues that have led to assumptions about the screening and treatment of coronary artery disease in women, which in turn have led to undertreatment and suboptimal care. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e84-e93 doi: 10.3909/ricm0564] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring Diagnosis Update
Numerous clinical studies have shown that coronary artery calcium scoring provides substantial incremental risk prediction beyond conventional coronary risk factors for coronary heart disease events. About half of all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) present initially with unexpected myocardial infarction or sudden death. Early identification of this subgroup of patients is vital for institution of intensive, early preventive measures to decrease morbidity and mortality due to CAD. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e94-e103 doi: 10.3909/ricm0566] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
2011 Medicare Review of Cardiology Office Visits
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e104 doi: 10.3909/ricm0603a] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Appropriate Use Criteria: The Gold Standard, or a Mechanism for the Derogation of Clinical Judgment?
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e105 doi: 10.3909/ricm0603b] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Our Shared Cardiology History
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e106 doi: 10.3909/ricm0603c] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Recent Advances in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Highlights From the 2011 Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance/Euro Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Joint Scientific Sessions, February 3-6, 2011, Nice, France [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e107-e112 doi: 10.3909/ricm0592] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the Setting of Sexual Intercourse Following the Use of Cocaine and Sildenafil
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the setting of sexual intercourse following the concomitant use of cocaine, alcohol, and sildenafil has not been previously reported. We present a case of a middle-aged patient with no previous history of angina pectoris or coronary artery disease who presents with severe ischemic chest pain and an MI induced by cocaine, alcohol, sildenafil, and sexual intercourse. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e113-e117 doi: 10.3909/ricm0560] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC
Antiarrhythmic Drugs
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e118-e120 doi: 10.3909/ricm0574] © 2011 MedReviewsÆ, LLC