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Volume 13, No 1 - 2012

Volume 13, No 1 - 2012

Table of Contents

Anticoagulation Strategies in Atrial Fibrillation Treatment Update
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for stroke and systemic embolization, particularly in the elderly. Approximately 2.3 million adults in the United States have AF, and it is projected that this number will increase to approximately 5.6 million individuals by the year 2050, with over 50% aged 80 years or older. Vitamin K antagonists are currently the most widely accepted means of stroke prevention in patients with AF; unfortunately, this method of treatment is not a feasible option for many patients for numerous reasons. This article examines and compares the various newer therapeutic agents that have either been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration or are still in various stages of clinical testing, and provides an overview of established antithrombotic therapies. We also discuss the role of anticoagulation in the setting of cardioversion in patients with AF. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e1-e13 doi: 10.3909/ricm0616] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Clinical Risk Prediction Tools in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure Management Update
Heart failure (HF) is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. Patients hospitalized with HF are at particularly high risk for mortality. The mortality rates reported for patients hospitalized with HF, although high, can vary significantly. There are a large number of individual variables that are predictive of prognosis in patients hospitalized with HF. Investigators have developed and validated clinical risk models to allow health care providers to more reliably identify HF patients at lower, intermediate, and higher risk for mortality based on admission patient characteristics, vital signs, physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic study results, and biomarkers. Use of clinical risk prediction tools may be helpful in triaging patients hospitalized with HF and guiding medical decision making. This article discusses the mortality predictors and risk stratification models for patients hospitalized with HF, and provides a perspective on the value of integrating these risk tools into clinical practice. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e14-e23 doi: 10.3909/ricm0595] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Emerging Therapies for Residual Risk Treatment Update
The role of statins in reducing the risk of coronary artery disease is well established. The use of statins in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease has reduced the incidence of major clinical events by 25% to 40%. However, despite aggressive statin therapy and the achievement of target low-density  lipoprotein cholesterol levels, the residual risk of cardiovascular events remains high. This review investigates emerging therapies to target the residual risk of cardiovascular events with concurrent statin therapy. [ Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e24-e31 doi: 10.3909/ricm0583 ] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Percutaneous Revascularization for Left Main Coronary Artery Compression From Pulmonary Artery Enlargement Due to Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Treatment Update
Extrinsic compression due to pulmonary artery enlargement from severe pulmonary hypertension is an uncommon cause of hemodynamically significant left main artery stenosis. Patients with severe pulmonary hypertension who experience angina should be evaluated for possible extrinsic compression of the left main artery due to pulmonary artery enlargement. Although computed tomographic angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are helpful in the screening for extrinsic left main artery compression, coronary angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention of the left main artery is feasible, safe, and a reasonable initial revascularization strategy for these patients because of the high risk of postoperative right ventricular failure and mortality observed with bypass surgery. [ Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e32-e36 doi: 10.3909/ricm0587 ] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Sudden Cardiac Death in Women Disease State Review
Women are at lower risk for development of sudden cardiac death (SCD) as compared with men. Women with SCD tend to have less structural heart disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common predictor of SCD in women, as it is in men. However, women with SCD are less likely to have underlying CAD than men, suggesting the need to identify risk factors other than CAD or systolic dysfunction for its prediction in women. SCD risk factors in women include heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function, abnormal sympathetic uptake as assessed by meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake, depression, and/or use of antidepressants. This article reviews SCD in women and discusses areas for future research. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e37-e42 doi: 10.3909/ricm0589] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act or Obamacare: Which Is the Better Descriptor?
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e43-e44 doi: 10.3909/ricm0646a] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Communicating Benefits: Interest Required
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e44-e45 doi: 10.3909/ricm0646a] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Oral Anticoagulants
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e46-e48 doi: 10.3909/ricm0642]
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e48-e51 doi: 10.3909/ricm0645] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC
Correction to “Galectin-3: A Novel Blood Test for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Heart Failure”
[Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2012;13(1):e52 doi: 10.3909/ricm131err] © 2012 MedReviews®, LLC