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Urology

Volume 12, No 2/3 - Spring/Summer 2010

Volume 12, No 2/3 - Spring/Summer 2010

Table of Contents

Can Urinary Nerve Growth Factor Be a Biomarker for Overactive Bladder? Diagnostic Update
The clinical diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB) greatly varies and is based on subjective symptoms. A more objective method to diagnose and assess therapeutic outcome in OAB patients, especially for health care providers not trained in urology, needs to be found. Evidence has shown that urinary proteins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and prostaglandin E2 levels increase in patients with OAB, bladder outlet obstruction, and detrusor overactivity. Urinary NGF level increases physiologically in normal subjects at urge to void, but increases pathologically in OAB patients at a small bladder volume and with a sensation of urgency. Recent studies have shown that patients with OAB dry and OAB wet have significantly higher urinary NGF levels compared with control groups and patients with increased bladder sensation. Urinary NGF levels decrease after antimuscarinic therapy and further decrease after detrusor botulinum toxin injections in refractory OAB. Urinary NGF level could be a potential biomarker for diagnosis of OAB and assessment of the therapeutic effect of antimuscarinic therapy. The latest medical advances in this field are reviewed herein. [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e69-e77 doi: 10.3909/riu0432]
Forensic Dissection of a Clinical Trial: Lessons Learned in Understanding and Managing Interstitial Cystitis Management Update
A pharmaceutical company—sponsored post-registration clinical trial designed to determine the most effective dose of pentosan polysulfate for the treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC) reported negative results. However, because of a priori trial design features, important posthoc analyses were able to answer many of the important clinical issues on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of IC that to date had remained unanswered. Seven published follow-up reports based on data and outcomes from the original study evaluated the clinical significance of a positive Potassium Sensitivity Test, confirmed the O’Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index as a valid and sensitive outcome measure, and determined that doses of pentosan polysulfate higher than the standard US Food and Drug Administration—approved dose of 300 mg/d did not increase efficacy although increased duration of therapy increases the chance of symptom amelioration. Further analyses determined that sexual dysfunction is an important parameter to assess in IC and that successful therapy can improve sexual functioning. Finally, the data showed that symptom severity, quality of life (QoL), and sleep function are interrelated. Consequently, symptom improvement with therapy correlates with improvement in both sleep function and QoL. This post hoc forensic dissection of a clinical trial initially undertaken for simple regulatory reasons has significantly improved our understanding and management of the enigmatic condition we call IC. [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e78-e85 doi: 10.3909/riu0445]
Kidney Stones: A Global Picture of Prevalence, Incidence, and Associated Risk Factors Disease State Review
The prevalence and incidence of nephrolithiasis is reported to be increasing across the world. Herein, we review information regarding stone incidence and prevalence from a global perspective. A literature search using PubMed and Ovid was performed to identify peer-reviewed journal articles containing information on the incidence and prevalence of kidney stones. Key words used included kidney stone prevalence, incidence, and epidemiology. Data were collected from the identified literature and sorted by demographic factors and time period. A total of 75 articles were identified containing kidney stone—related incidence or prevalence data from 20 countries; 34 provided suitable information for review. Data regarding overall prevalence or incidence for more than a single time period were found for 7 countries (incidence data for 4 countries; prevalence data for 5 countries). These included 5 European countries (Italy, Germany, Scotland, Spain, and Sweden), Japan, and the United States. The body of evidence suggests that the incidence and prevalence of kidney stones is increasing globally. These increases are seen across sex, race, and age. Changes in dietary practices may be a key driving force. In addition, global warming may influence these trends. [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e86-e96 doi: 10.3909/riu0459]
Surgical Options for Drug-Refractory Overactive Bladder Patients Treatment Update
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex of urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and nocturia, with or without urgency incontinence. This syndrome is idiopathic in most instances without clearly defined pathophysiology. Studies clearly show that OAB negatively impacts health-related quality of life and impairs daily functioning in a large proportion of patients. Despite recent advances in drug delivery and improved tolerability of antimuscarinic drug class, a large percentage of patients remain refractory to conventional pharmacological therapy for this chronic condition. There are several unique and effective treatments that are available for this difficult population. We review the various surgical options within the urological armamentarium to treat patients with refractory OAB. [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e97-e110 doi:10.3909/riu0468]
Venous Thromboembolism in Urologic Surgery: Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment Treatment Update
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents one of the most common and potentially devastating complications of urologic surgery. With VTE’s rapid onset of symptoms, association with a precipitous clinical course, and high mortality rate, all urologists should be well versed in appropriate prophylaxis, prompt diagnosis, and expeditious treatment. A MEDLINE® search was performed for articles that examined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of VTE in urologic surgery. Additional articles were reviewed based on cited references. There is a paucity of prospective studies on VTE in the urologic literature with most recommendations for urologic surgery patients being extrapolated from other surgical disciplines. Retrospective studies place VTE incidence rates in major urologic surgeries among the highest reported—highlighting the importance of thromboprophylaxis. Conversely, VTE was rarely reported in association with endoscopic and laparoscopic procedures making mechanical thromboprophylaxis sufficient. Recent literature reveals delayed VTE occurring after hospital discharge to be a persistent threat despite inpatient preoperative prophylaxis. Computed tomographic angiography has emerged as the test of choice for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, whereas lower extremity duplex sonography is recommended for diagnosing deep venous thrombosis. Traditional angiography is rarely used. Treatment of VTE involves therapeutic anticoagulation for various lengths of time based on presence and reversibility of patient risk factors as well as number of events. Perioperative thromboprophylaxis should be considered in all major urologic surgeries. Urologists should be familiar with incidence rates, recommended prophylaxis, appropriate diagnosis, and treatment recommendations for VTE to minimize morbidity and mortality. The limited number of prospective, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the use of thromboprophylaxis in urologic surgery demonstrates the need for further research. [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e111-e124 doi: 10.3909/riu0472]
Uro-Oncological Controversies in Euro-Oncology Meeting Review
Highlights From the European Association of Urology Section of Oncological Urology, January 15-17, 2010, Vienna, Austria [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e125-e128 doi: 10.3909/riu0491]
Oncological Update: New Findings in Bladder and Prostate Cancer Meeting Review
Highlights From the 25th Anniversary Congress of the European Association of Urology, April 16-20, 2010, Barcelona, Spain [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e129-e133 doi: 10.3909/riu0499]
Best of the AUA Annual Meeting Meeting Review
Highlights From the 2010 American Urological Association Meeting, May 29-June 3, 2010, San Francisco, CA [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e134-e146 doi: 10.3909/riu0500]
Risk Factor Analysis and Management of Ureteral Double-J Stent Complications Case Review
Double-J ureteral stents are commonly used to manage urinary obstructions. Pain, bladder irritative symptoms, and fever are usually signs of early complications related to double-J stents; late complications are more troublesome. We review 4 cases that highlight a variety of late complications with double- J stents (encrustation, migration, and fragmentation). Following a review of the literature, guidelines are established for monitoring potential risk factors as well as management strategies for prevention of possible complications when using double-J stents. [Rev Urol. 2010;12(2/3):e147-e151 doi:10.3909/riu0447]
Nephrology Reviewing the Literature