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Urology

Volume 12, No 4 - Fall 2010

Volume 12, No 4 - Fall 2010

Table of Contents

Metabolic Syndrome and Urologic Diseases Mangement Review
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex entity consisting of multiple interrelated factors including insulin resistance, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic disease, low-grade inflammation, and in males, low testosterone levels. MetS has been linked to a number of urologic diseases including nephrolithiasis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms, erectile dysfunction, male infertility, female incontinence, and prostate cancer. This article reviews the relationships between MetS and these entities. Urologists need to be cognizant of the impact that MetS has on urologic diseases as well as on overall patient health.[Rev Urol. 2010;12(4):e157-e180 doi: 10.3909/riu0487]© 2010 MedReviews®, LLC
State of the Art in Intravesical Therapy for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms State of the Art
Intravesical therapy is the routine first-line treatment for effectively delaying or preventing the recurrence of bladder cancer. This route of drug administration has also shown tremendous promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and potentially overactive bladder to justify investments for further improvements. This review takes a bird’s eye view into the current status of intravesical therapy, with emphasis on liposomal nanoparticles, in diseases associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Ongoing efforts to advance the field of intravesical drug delivery include development of sustained-release drug implants and efforts to improve delivery of biotechnological products including large protein acting as neurotoxins and small interfering RNAs.[Rev Urol. 2010;12(4):e181-e189 doi: 10.3909/riu0496]© 2010 MedReviews®, LLC
Chronic Spontaneous Nephrocutaneous Fistula Associated With Renal Replacement Lipomatosis
Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare renal disease. Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma with massive increases in the amount of fat in the sinus and perirenal space. The 2 conditions can be associated because they may have the same etiology. Indeed, urolithiasis is the most common cause of these diseases. We report a case of chronic nephrocutaneous fistula associated with RRL due to both urolithiasis and renal tuberculosis.[Rev Urol. 2010;12(4):e190-e192 doi: 10.3909/riu0458]© 2010 MedReviews®, LLC
Spontaneous Rupture of a Renal Artery Aneurysm Presenting as Gross Hematuria
Renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) are localized dilations of the renal artery and/or its branches. They are being found with increasing frequency as a result of unrelated abdominal imaging or on workup for hypertension. They are rarely symptomatic; however, they can be a cause of life-threatening hematuria. Discussed is the case of a previously healthy 46-year-old man presenting with flank pain and gross hematuria. It is imperative for the practicing urologist to be aware of the appropriate evaluation and management of RAAs.[Rev Urol. 2010;12(4):e193-e196 doi: 10.3909/riu0489]© 2010 MedReviews®, LLC
Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Bladder
Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is a rare and aggressive tumor associated with a poor prognosis. It often presents at a later stage than urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, and comprises less than 1% of bladder malignancies. A number of treatment algorithms have been used to treat bladder SCC, including cystectomy, partial cystectomy, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, chemotherapy alone, and neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy. Presented is a case of SCC of the bladder, and the epidemiology, prognosis, and current treatment algorithms for patients with bladder SCC are reviewed.[Rev Urol. 2010;12(4):e197-e201 doi: 10.3909/riu0492]©2010 MedReviews®, LLC
Publications From the International Children's Continence Society Pediatric Urology
[Rev Urol. 2010;12(4):e202-e204 doi: 10.3909/riu0497]© 2010 MedReviews®, LLC
PCA3 Urinary Biomarker for Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer
[Rev Urol. 2010;12(4):e205-e206 doi: 10.3909/riu0507]© 2010 MedReviews®, LLC