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Urology

Volume 16, No 3 - 2014

Volume 16, No 3 - 2014

Table of Contents

Taxi Cab Syndrome: A Review of the Extensive Genitourinary Pathology Experienced by Taxi Cab Drivers and What We Can Do to Help Disease State Review
This review consolidates knowledge regarding the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers. Taxi cab, livery, truck, and other drivers all objectively and subjectively may have more voiding dysfunction, infertility, urolithiasis, bladder cancer, and urinary infections as compared with nonprofessional drivers; this is called taxi cab syndrome. Together with governmental and medical assistance, simple interventions—such as education, the addition of taxi relief stations, and possibly the use of sanitary urinary collection devices—to curb the progression of genitourinary disease in taxi drivers should be prospectively studied. It is postulated that many of these interventions may also benefit other groups of occupationally related infrequent voiders. [Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):99-104 doi: 10.3909/riu0627] This article is a US Government work, and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published by MedReviews®, LLC
Management of Erectile Dysfunction in the Hypogonadal Man: A Case-Based Review Management Review
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular and overall health, independent of other known conventional risk factors. ED often precedes coronary artery disease in half of affected subjects, and could indicate the presence of cardiovascular pathology. The pathophysiology and role of androgens in sexual function are described, along with the relevant literature on the effects of aging in erectile and gonadal function. The concept of testosterone supplementation (TST) in men with ED is reviewed. The authors utilize clinical vignettes to discuss the appropriate management of two clinical cases of men at different life stages who have ED in the setting of hypogonadism and propose a treatment algorithm. In patients of all ages, proper identification of the underlying pathophysiology of decreased libido and erectile function is paramount in choosing between the use of TST, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, or both, in the management of these disorders. [Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):105-109 doi: 10.3909/riu0623] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
The Emerging Role of Social Media in Urology Technology Update
Social media have become so integrated into modern communications as to be universal in our personal and, increasingly, professional lives. Recent examples of social media uptake in urology, and the emergence of data to quantify it, reveal the expansion of conventional communication routes beyond the in-person forum. In every domain of urologic practice, from patient interaction through research to continuing professional development, the move online has unlocked another layer of conversation, dissemination, and, indeed, caveats. Social media have a democratizing effect, placing patients, trainees, practitioners, and thought leaders in the same arena and on equal footing. If uptake of social media in medicine even remotely parallels its rise to ubiquity in other areas, it will only expand and evolve in the coming years. For these reasons, this article presents an overview of the most recent data on the impact and potential complications of social media usage in the urologic community. [Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):110-117 doi: 10.3909/riu0640] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
Role of Chemokines in Renal Cell Carcinoma Systematic Review
With new frontiers of pharmaceutical therapies focusing on tumor growth and angiogenesis, understanding the interaction between immune system and tumor microenvironment has become ever more important. Chemokines and chemokine receptors appear to play an integral role in tumor characteristics. Evidence suggests CXCR4, CXCL5, CXCR7, and stromal derived factor-1 appear to be crucial in survival, growth, and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. As the role of chemokines in renal cancer is becoming more evident, further research will lead to a better understanding of tumor biology and the development of new therapeutic targets to help improve survival. [Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):118-121 doi: 10.3909/riu0608] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
The Rationale for Optimal Combination Therapy With Sipuleucel-T for Patients With Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Treatment Review
Immunotherapy encourages the recipient’s own immune response to destroy cancer cells, and current evidence suggests that immunotherapies may be most beneficial in early metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Sipuleucel-T is the first therapeutic cancer vaccine to be approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC. Combining immunotherapy with other treatments may have potent anticancer effects; cytoreductive therapies can release tumor antigens and promote a proinflammatory environment that could augment immunotherapies. However, some cytoreductive agents or coadministered drugs may be immunosuppressive. Understanding these interactions between different mCRPC treatment modalities may offer further potential to improve patient outcomes. [Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):122-130 doi: 10.3909/riu0637] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
From the President’s Desk
[Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):131-133 doi: 10.3909/riu0634] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
The Obama Administration: Driving Provider Consolidation and Increased Costs
[Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):133-135 doi: 10.3909/riu0634a] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
Shared Medical Appointments in Urology
[Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):136-138 doi: 10.3909/riu0632] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
Best of the 2014 AUA Annual Meeting
[Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):139-144 doi: 10.3909/riu0636] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
Occult Renal Cell Carcinoma Manifesting as Nasal Mass and Epistaxis
Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is rare, with fewer than 50 cases described in the literature. Nasal metastasis as the initial presentation of RCC is even rarer. Metastases to the nasal cavity usually represent advanced disease with poor outcome. The authors report a case of metastatic RCC presenting with right nasal cavity mass and epistaxis, followed by a brief review of the relevant literature. [Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):145-148 doi: 10.3909/riu0607] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
Urethral Duplication in a 15-Year-Old: Case Report With Review of the Literature
Urethral duplication is a rare congenital malformation mainly affecting men and boys. Although a number of theories have been proposed to describe this condition, the actual mechanism of this disorder is still not clear. This article highlights a case of urethral duplication in a 15-year-old boy. The malformation was characterized by the presence of continent epispadic and normal apical urethra. Retrograde urethrogram through both urethral tracts simultaneously revealed the malformation as Effmann type IIA2. The patient was not offered surgical intervention as he was asymptomatic and had no problems except for a double stream of urine. [Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):149-151 doi: 10.3909/riu0618] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
#Urology Is Trending in Social Media Social Media
[Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):152-154 doi: 10.3909/riu0624a] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
Prostate-specific Antigen Velocity Risk Count to Discern Significant From Indolent Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer
[Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):154-156 doi: 10.3909/riu0624b] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC
Prevalence of Infections Associated With Prostate Biopsy Prostate Cancer
[Rev Urol. 2014;16(3):156-157 doi: 10.3909/riu0624c] © 2014 MedReviews®, LLC