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Urology

Volume 17, No 1 - 2015

Volume 17, No 1 - 2015

Table of Contents

Using the 4Kscore Test and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Results to Avoid Unnecessary Prostate Biopsy
[Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):1-2 doi: 10.3909/riu0668a] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Finding the Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: The 4Kscore Is a Novel Blood Test That Can Accurately Identify the Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Screening Update
Better biomarkers that can discriminate between aggressive and indolent phenotypes of prostate cancer are urgently needed. In the first 20 years of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, screening for prostate cancer has successfully reduced prostate cancer mortality, but has led to significant problems with overdiagnosis and overtreatment. As a result, many men are subjected to unnecessary prostate biopsies and overtreatment of indolent cancer in order to save one man from dying of prostate cancer. A novel blood test known as the 4Kscore® Test (OPKO Lab, Nashville, TN) incorporates a panel of four kallikrein protein biomarkers (total PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2) and other clinical information in an algorithm that provides a percent risk for a high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 7) cancer on biopsy. In 10 peer-reviewed publications, the four kallikrein biomarkers and algorithm of the 4Kscore Test have been shown to improve the prediction not only of biopsy histopathology, but also surgical pathology and occurrence of aggressive, metastatic disease. Recently, a blinded prospective trial of the 4Kscore Test was conducted across the United States among 1012 men. The 4Kscore Test replicated previous European results showing accuracy in predicting biopsy outcome of Gleason score ≥ 7. In a recent case-control study nested within a population-based cohort from Västerbotten, Sweden, the four kallikrein biomarkers of the 4Kscore Test also predicted the risk for aggressive prostate cancer that metastasized within 20 years after the test was administered. These results indicate that men with an abnormal PSA or digital rectal examination result, and for whom an initial or repeat prostate biopsy is being considered, would benefit from a reflex 4Kscore Test to add important information to the clinical decision-making process. A high-risk 4Kscore Test result may be used to select men with a high probability of aggressive prostate cancer who would benefit from a biopsy of the prostate to prevent an adverse and potentially lethal outcome from prostate cancer. Men with a low 4Kscore Test result may safely defer biopsy. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):3-13 doi: 10.3909/riu0668] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Expectations of Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery in Patients With Mixed Urinary Incontinence Management Update
Mixed urinary incontinence is estimated to affect 30% of all women who have urinary incontinence, and it has been shown to be more bothersome to women than pure stress incontinence. Given the degree of bother, many women will undergo surgical correction for incontinence. Patients have high expectations about the success of these interventions. Understanding mixed incontinence and the effects of our interventions can help guide therapeutic choices and manage patients’ expectations. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):14-19 doi: 10.3909/riu0646] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications Technology Update
3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):20-24 doi: 10.3909/riu0656] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Hemostasis During Urologic Surgery: Fibrin Sealant Compared With Absorbable Hemostat
In the United States, fibrin sealants have been used to achieve hemostasis for nearly two decades. Although their clinical utility was first demonstrated in cardiac surgery, their effectiveness and safety have since been demonstrated to extend to a wide array of procedures. Fibrin sealants typically contain two components—fibrinogen and thrombin—that are combined and delivered simultaneously to a target bleeding site in order to achieve hemostasis. However, many commercial formulations contain other additional components, such as antifibrinolytic agents, that have been associated with adverse outcomes. This subanalysis compares the safety and effectiveness of a fibrin sealant versus an absorbable hemostat for achieving hemostasis during urologic procedures with mild to moderate bleeding. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):25-30 doi: 10.3909/ricm0647] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Thriving in the Independent Setting: Highlights From the 2014 LUGPA Annual Meeting
[Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):31-32 doi: 10.3909/riu0667] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
How Best to Use Modifier 59
[Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):33-34 doi: 10.3909/riu0657] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra With Mucinous Features
Primary adenocarcinoma of the female urethra is a rare malignancy. Previous studies hypothesize multiple origins, including periurethral glands or intestinal metaplasia. We report a case of a 60-year-old white woman with adenocarcinoma of the urethra who initially presented with obstructive voiding complaints secondary to a urethral mass. Wide local excision revealed invasive adenocarcinoma of the urethra with mucinous features. There was intestinal metaplasia adjacent to the tumor, as well as separate identification of intestinal metaplasia along the urethra. Ultimately, the patient underwent radical cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion with no evidence of recurrence, indicating the role of early identification and surgical intervention for such cases. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):38-41 doi: 10.3909/riu0622] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Rare Case of Monozygotic Twins Diagnosed With Klinefelter Syndrome During Evaluation for Infertility
Although neither Klinefelter syndrome nor monozygotic twins are particularly rare (1/667 male births and 3-4/1000 live births, respectively), the occurrence of both in the same pregnancy (ie, identical twins with Klinefelter syndrome) is exceedingly rare and has only been reported three times previously in the literature. This report describes the fourth ever reported case of monozygotic twins with Klinefelter syndrome (who presented to our male fertility clinic with failure to conceive) and sheds interesting light on the reproductive concordance observed with this rare clinical entity. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of monozygotic twins with Klinefelter syndrome that describes the infertility workup and outcomes of microsurgical testicular sperm extraction. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):42-45 doi: 10.3909/riu0628] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
En Bloc Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Partial Cystectomy, Urachal Resection, and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy for Urachal Adenocarcinoma
Primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder and urachus are extremely rare, accounting for 0.5% to 2.0% of all bladder malignancies. During fetal development, the urachus develops into the median umbilical ligament that stretches from the umbilicus to the bladder. Adenocarcinoma accounts for 90% of all cases of urachal carcinoma. There is no consensus regarding the management of urachal carcinoma. Although the preferred treatment is wide local excision with partial or radical cystectomy, bladder-sparing management is increasing. We report a case of robot-assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy with en bloc resection of the urachus and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy for urachal carcinoma. The robot-assisted laparoscopic approach allowed us to minimize surgical morbidity, postoperative pain, and convalescent time while maintaining the oncologic principle of wide local excision. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):46-49 doi: 10.3909/riu0630] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC