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Urology

Volume 17, No 3 - 2015

Volume 17, No 3 - 2015

Table of Contents

Metabolic Syndrome and Nephrolithiasis Risk: Should the Medical Management of Nephrolithiasis Include the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome?
This article reviews the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nephrolithiasis, as well as the clinical implications for patients with this dual diagnosis. MetS, estimated to affect 25% of adults in the United States, is associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of developing diabetes, a doubling of the risk of acquiring cardiovascular disease, and an increase in overall mortality. Defined as a syndrome, MetS is recognized clinically by numerous constitutive traits, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and hyperglycemia. Urologic complications of MetS include a 30% higher risk of nephrolithiasis, with an increased percentage of uric acid nephrolithiasis in the setting of hyperuricemia, hyperuricosuria, low urine pH, and low urinary volume. Current American Urological Association and European Association of Urology guidelines suggest investigating the etiology of nephrolithiasis in affected individuals; however, there is no specific goal of treating MetS as part of the medical management. Weight loss and exercise, the main lifestyle treatments of MetS, counter abdominal obesity and insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events and the development of diabetes. These recommendations may offer a beneficial adjunctive treatment option for nephrolithiasis complicated by MetS. Although definitive therapeutic recommendations must await further studies, it seems both reasonable and justifiable for the urologist, as part of a multidisciplinary team, to recommend these important lifestyle changes to patients with both conditions. These recommendations should accompany the currently accepted management of nephrolithiasis. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):117-128 doi: 10.3909/riu0650] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women
Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients’ quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):129-139 doi: 10.3909/riu0651] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
The Role of Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques in the Management of Large-gland Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy Management Update
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) are among the most common medical issues for aging men. Population-based studies suggest that 13.8% of men in their 40s and more than 40% of men over age 60 have BPH. When LUTS are refractory to medical therapy and bothersome enough to warrant surgical intervention, transurethral resection of the prostate and open simple prostatectomy have been the historical reference-standard procedures for decades. Both procedures are highly effective and offer durable improvements in urinary functional outcomes. However, they also have the potential for considerable perioperative complications and morbidity. In an effort to limit surgical morbidity, a variety of minimally invasive surgical techniques to treat BPH have been introduced. Herein we present a comprehensive, evidence-based review of the efficacy and safety profile of modern minimally invasive treatments for large-gland BPH. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):140-149 doi: 10.3909/riu0675] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Current Status of Hemostatic Agents and Sealants in Urologic Surgical Practice Management Update
There has been a recent and near exponential increase in the use of hemostatic agents and sealants to supplement the rapidly evolving methods in the surgical management of urologic patients. This article reviews the use of hemostatic agents and sealants in current urologic practice. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):150-159 doi: 10.3909/riu0673] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Optimizing Stone-free Rates With Ureteroscopy Treatment Update
Ureteroscopy is being increasingly utilized in the treatment and management of patients with renal and ureteral stones. Improving stone-free rates with ureteroscopy decreases the need for ancillary procedures and improves patient outcomes and satisfaction. This article reviews contemporary literature regarding the efficacy of a wide range of currently available techniques for improving stone-free rates with this procedure. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):160-164 doi: 10.3909/riu0665] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
The Obesity Epidemic and Its Impact on Urologic Care Management Update
Although heart disease and cancer are the number one and two causes of death in the United States, respectively, obesity is gaining speed as a contributing cause to both of those conditions, along with diabetes, arthritis, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, gallbladder disease, and certain malignancies. Nearly one-third of the adults in the United States is overweight with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2, and another third of the adult population is obese, with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2. This article reviews the root causes of obesity, the societal implications, and the implications of obesity on various urologic diseases. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):165-170 doi: 10.3909/riu0683] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Impact of the US Preventive Services Task Force Grade D Recommendation: Assessment of Evaluations for Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen and Prostate Biopsies in a Large Urology Group Practice Followi Treatment Impact Assessment
On October 7, 2011, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) released their evidence statement and grade D recommendation against prostate-specific antigen (PSA)–based prostate cancer screening. Using a time series design, we assessed the effect of this recommendation upon evaluations for elevated PSA levels and prostate biopsies in our large urology group practice. We found that, despite a 24.1% increase in total visits, the 32 urologists in our practice completed 16.4% fewer evaluations for elevated PSA levels (317 fewer evaluations per month; P = .017) and 21.4% fewer prostate biopsies (42 fewer biopsies per month; P = .001) in the 2 years following the USPSTF grade D recommendation. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):171-177 doi: 10.3909/riu0696] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
From the President’s Desk: LUPGA Announces Its First CEO, Celeste Kirschner
[Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):178 doi: 10.3909/riu1703LUGPA] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Retroperitoneal Ancient Schwannoma: A Case Report
Schwannomas are extremely rare tumors that are composed of Schwann cells. Retroperitoneal localization comprises 0.7% to 2.6% of all schwannomas. Patients usually present with nonspecific symptoms. There are no pathognomonic features on radiologic evaluation. Preoperative biopsy is not recommended because of complication risks; however, surgery is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Although most schwannomas are benign tumors, those that are associated with von Recklinghausen disease are malignant. Schwannomas exhibit regions of high and low cellularity, termed Antoni A and Antoni B areas, with a diffuse positivity of S100 protein on pathologic evaluation. If there are degenerative changes, such as cyst formation, hemorrhage, calcification, and hyalinization, these tumors are termed ancient schwannomas. We present a case of retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):190-193 doi: 10.3909/riu0638] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC
Treatment of Colonic Injury During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
Colonic injury during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) persists despite the advances in technical equipment and interventional radiology techniques. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications, colonic injury is regarded as a stage IVa complication. Currently, the rate of colonic injury ranges between 0.3% and 0.5%, with an unremarkable difference in incidence between supine and prone PCNL procedures. Colon injury is the most significant complication of PCNL. Colonic injury can result in more complicated open exploration of the abdomen, involving colostomy construction. The necessity of a second operation for the closure of the colostomy causes financial and emotional burden on the patients, patients’ relatives, and surgeons. Currently, the majority of colonic injuries occurring during PCNL are retroperitoneal. The primary treatment option is a conservative approach. It must be kept in mind that the time of diagnosis is as important as the diagnosis itself in colonic injury. Surgeons performing PCNL are advised to be conservative when considering exploratory laparotomy and colostomy construction during treatment of colonic injury. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman who underwent left prone PCNL that resulted in retroperitoneal colonic injury, along with a review of the current literature. [Rev Urol. 2015;17(3):194-201 doi: 10.3909/riu0641] © 2015 MedReviews®, LLC