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Volume 18, Issue 4 - 2016

Volume 18, No 4 - 2016

Table of Contents

Frequency of Gleason Score 7 to 10 in 5100 Elderly Prostate Cancer Patients Cancer Screening Update
Men 70 to 80 years of age are known to have an increased incidence of high-grade (Gleason sum score [GSS] 7-10) prostate cancer. We determined the frequency of high-grade prostate cancer among men 70 to 80 years old in our practice. We retrospectively reviewed our 5100 prostate cancer patients who are 70 to 80 years old and who opted for radiation therapy (external radiation, brachytherapy, or combination). Data were gathered on race, prostate-specific antigen value, digital rectal examination (DRE) results, and GSS. Patients were further subdivided by age in two categories, those 70 to 75 years and 76 to 80 years, and also by time period: 2006-2010 and 2011-2015. In patients 70 to 75 years, 1426 patients had a GSS of 6 (41%) and 2042 patients had a GSS of 7 to 10 (59%). In patients 76 to 80 years old, 553 had a GSS of 6 (34%) and 1079 had a GSS of 7 to 10 (66%). In 1432 patients with an abnormal DRE result, the GSS was 6 in 376 (26%) and GSS was 7 to 10 in 1059 (74%). Based on analysis of 5100 prostate cancer patients in our practice, we determined that 61% of patients age 70 to 80 have a high-grade prostate cancer, as do 59% of patients age 70 to 75 years, and 66% of patients between age 76 and 80 years. Because biopsy underestimates the grade in GSS 6 patients by 50%, the actual frequency is approximately 80%. In patients with prostate cancer who had an abnormal DRE result, 74% had a GSS of 7 to 10—approximately 85% when accounting for biopsy under-grading. [Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):181-187 doi: 10.3909/riu0732] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Barriers to Accessing Urethroplasty Treatment Update
Urethroplasty is an effective treatment for men with anterior urethral strictures, but is utilized less frequently than ineffective treatments such as internal urethrotomy. We sought to identify provider-level barriers to urethroplasty. An anonymous online survey was emailed to all Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association members. Six scenarios in which urethroplasty was the most appropriate treatment were presented. Primary outcome was recommendation for urethroplasty in ≥ three clinical scenarios. Other factors measured include practice zip code, urethroplasty training, and proximity to a urethroplasty surgeon. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with increased likelihood of urethroplasty recommendation. Of 670 members emailed, 109 (16%) completed the survey. Final analysis included 88 respondents. Mean years in practice was 17.2. Most respondents received formal training in urethroplasty: 43 (49%) in residency, 5 (6%) in fellowship, and 10 (11%) in both; 48 respondents (55%) had a urethroplasty surgeon in their practice, whereas 18 (20%) had a urethroplasty surgeon within 45 minutes of his or her primary practice location. The only covariate that was associated with an increased likelihood of recommending urethroplasty in ≥ three scenarios was formal urethroplasty training. Most members (68%) reported no barriers to referring patients for urethroplasty; the most common barriers cited were long distance to urethroplasty surgeon (n = 13, 15%) and concern about complications (n = 8, 9%). Urethroplasty continues to be underutilized in men with anterior urethral strictures, potentially due to lack of knowledge dissemination and access to a urethroplasty surgeon. Appropriate urethroplasty utilization may increase with greater exposure to urethroplasty in training. [Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):188-193 doi: 10.3909/riu0731] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Smoking-related Genitourinary Cancers: A Global Call to Action in Smoking Cessation Disease Outcome Update
Smoking is a known modifiable risk factor in the development of genitourinary malignancies. Although the association has long been supported by numerous research studies, the impact of smoking cessation on the decreased risk of genitourinary malignancies is less well studied. PubMed databases were searched using the terms smoking, smoking cessation, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer, penile cancer, testicular cancer, their synonyms, and also targeted manual searches to perform a literature review in order to summarize the benefits of cessation on disease progression and patient outcomes including survival and morbidities. Our review yielded substantial evidence highlighting the improved outcomes observed in those diagnosed with bladder, renal, and prostate cancers. The risk of bladder cancer is reduced by up to 60% in those who were able to quit for 25 years and the risk of kidney malignancy was reduced by 50% in those who abstained from smoking for 30 years. A similar trend of reduced risk was observed for prostate cancer with those who quit for more than 10 years, having prostate cancer mortality risks similar to those that never smoked. Although the data were encouraging for bladder, renal, and prostate malignancies, there are comparatively limited data quantifying the benefits of smoking cessation for penile and testicular cancers, highlighting an opportunity for further study. The role of urologists and their impact on their patients’ likelihood to quit smoking shows more than half of urologists never discuss smoking cessation upon diagnosis of a malignancy. Most urologists said they did not provide cessation counseling because they do not believe it would alter their patients’ disease progression. Studies show urologists have more influence at changing their patients’ smoking behaviors than their primary care physicians. The diagnosis of cancer may lead to a teachable moment resulting in increased smoking quit rates. Furthermore, implementing a brief 5-minute clinic counseling session increases quit attempts and quit rates. Diagnosis of genitourinary cancers and the following appointments for treatment provide a unique opportunity for urologists to intervene and affect the progression and outcome of disease. [Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):194-204 doi: 10.3909/riu0729] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Prostate Cancer Academy 2016: Presentation Summaries
[Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):205-213 doi:10.3909/riuPCA2016] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Prostate Cancer Survivorship: Implementation of Survivorship Care Plans to Meet the Mandate and Enhance Urologic Practice Through Collaborative Care
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among the male survivorship population in the United States, representing 44% of approximately 7 million survivors. In the era of modern medicine and value-based care, successfully treating only the cancer is not sufficient. The cancer survivor represents an individual in need of restoration and protection against future events. A well-designed and well-supported survivorship program not only meets a mandate for accreditation, it logically translates into better patient care. This review summarizes the history of the survivorship movement, outlines some key elements of a survivorship program, and highlights the opportunity to apply these principles to improve cancer-related care, develop relationships with colleagues that may allow increased identification of men at risk, and expand both the experience and outcomes of individual specialists within men’s health. [Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):214-220 doi: 10.3909/riu0733] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
2014-2016: How Far Has LUGPA Come?
[Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):221-224 doi: 10.3909/riu0735] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Looking Ahead to 2017
[Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):225 doi: 10.3909/riu0736] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Advanced Prostate Cancer in Large Group Practices
[Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):226-230 doi:10.3909/riu0737] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Testosterone Deficiency in a Man Interested in Preserving Fertility
[Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):234-236 doi: 10.3909/riu0734b] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Staghorn Calculi in a Woman With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
[Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):237-238 doi: 10.3909/ riu0734c] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Gossypiboma Manifesting as Urachal Mass
Gossypiboma (retained surgical sponge) occurs between 1 in 1000 and 1 in 1500 of all intra-abdominal operations. Patients with gossypibomas may present asymptomatically or with nonspecific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or bloating; identification frequently relies on imaging. Results of imaging alone, however, may appear nonspecific, and the gossypiboma may mimic other masses, such as neoplasms, hematomas, or abscesses. They require surgical removal for definitive diagnosis and treatment. Herein we present an unusual case of gossypiboma masquerading as an urachal mass in a 75-year-old woman. Diagnostic evaluation, natural history, and prevention of retained surgical materials are discussed. [Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):239-241 doi: 10.3909/riu0703] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC
Collateral Urethral Duplication in an Adult With Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
Duplications of the lower urinary tract are rare congenital anomalies that are usually accompanied by concomitant nonurologic anomalies; they are typically diagnosed in early childhood. In more rare cases these are isolated, leading to diagnosis later. We describe a 50-year-old man who remained asymptomatic and therefore undiagnosed for five decades. His is one of fewer than 20 cases in the literature describing urethral duplication in the coronal (collateral) plane, the more common variant being sagittal (dorsal-ventral) duplication. He is one of only four cases reported without concomitant midline anomaly. Furthermore, he is the sole case associated with adult polycystic kidney disease. [Rev Urol. 2016;18(4):242-245 doi: 10.3909/riu0705] © 2016 MedReviews®, LLC