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Urology

Volume 8, No 3 - Summer 2006

Volume 8, No 3 - Summer 2006

Table of Contents

Management of Overactive Bladder With Transdermal Oxybutynin Treatment Update
In clinical trials, transdermal oxybutynin (OXY-TDS) has shown comparable efficacy and improved tolerability when compared with conventional pharmacotherapy. Systemic anticholinergic adverse effects are comparable to those with placebo, most likely owing to avoidance of first-pass hepatic metabolism and conversion of oxybutynin to N-desethyloxybutynin. OXY-TDS has predictable pharmacokinetic absorption and elimination parameters, as shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Consistent plasma concentrations of oxybutynin avoid labile peak and trough concentrations seen with immediaterelease formulations, paralleling extended-release drug delivery. This novel drug delivery system has unique dermatologic skin application site reactions, including erythema and pruritus. Skin reactions are usually mild and can be minimized by varying the site of patch application. Most eczematous dermatologic reactions can be appropriately treated with a moderately potent topical corticosteroid cream. A small percentage of patients will discontinue therapy as a result of bothersome application site skin reactions. [Rev Urol. 2006;8(3):93-103]
New Generation Tissue Sealants and Hemostatic Agents: Innovative Urologic Applications Treatment Update
Control of blood loss during urologic surgery is paramount to the success of patient recovery. Hemostatic agents and tissue sealants are used routinely to prevent excess blood loss and in reconstruction during surgical repair. Some of the available products include thrombin sealant, fibrin glue, bovine serum/ albumin/glutaraldehyde, and gelatin matrix. Each of these agents differs in mechanism, cost, and application. Complications can include allergic reactions or thromboembolism and the risk of contracting bovine spongiform encephalitis or hepatitis. Many new hemostatic agents are being developed and approved. The benefits and risks of use of these agents versus conventional treatment need to be considered on a case-by-case basis by the surgeon. [Rev Urol. 2006;8(3):104-111]
The Importance of Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Diagnostic Review
Despite advances in noninvasive staging, pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) remains the most accurate means of detecting lymph node metastases in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Nomograms exist that can identify patients at low risk for lymphatic metastases according to preoperative information. In general, it seems reasonable to omit PLND in men with a biopsy Gleason sum of 6 or less and a prostate-specific antigen level of 10 ng/mL or less. Ultimately, however, this decision should be made according to physician and patient preference, considering the low contemporary morbidity associated with PLND. When PLND is performed, studies suggest that an extended dissection maximizes the detection rate of nodal involvement. Retrospective data indicate that an extended dissection might play a therapeutic role in a subset of patients with a limited lymph node burden. However, this might be an artifact of stage migration, and prospective studies are needed to evaluate this further. [Rev Urol. 2006;8(3):112-119]
Spurious Hypocalcemia After Gadodiamide-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Case Review
Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a diagnostic modality widely used in urologic practice. We report on a 54-year-old woman in whom a critically low serum calcium level was measured with standard colorimetric assay after gadodiamide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The same phenomenon was noted in 2 other patients seen in our practice. Repeat serum calcium measurements performed several hours later were within normal limits. Commercially available gadolinium-based contrast agents might precipitate critically low serum calcium values when measured by standard colorimetric assay. Physician awareness of gadodiamide-induced spurious hypocalcemia might prevent unnecessary therapeutic interventions. [Rev Urol. 2006;8(3):165-168]
Kidney Stones Reviewing the Literature
Fertility Reviewing the Literature